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Stroke, TBI & Concussion (Head Injury) - Quick Facts

  • As late as 2015, many in the medical community were professing there was nothing to be done to address symptoms of traumatic brain injury 8 months post injury / event.
  • This is false.
  • From the late 1980’s to 2000’s experimental approaches have greatly advanced the science and practice of ‘brain repair’.

The brain is (and has always been) an incredibly plastic instrument. Advances in technology (brain imaging systems) have now permitted sceptics to catch up with the then emergent science & see what can indeed be done. At Swingle Clinic we address both the injury itself and the cognitive, emotional or physical symptom(s) of said injury. We use EEG training autonomously as well as combined with the affected activity or ability. With physiotherapy techniques, speech production techniques, and cognitive recuperation techniques we facilitate the (re)learning of compromised skill sets and abilities.

Note: Results vary by injury scope. Prospective clients must medically ensure there is no current profusion (e.g., brain bleeding) before embarking on a course of Neurotherapy.


Brain Injury

For diagnosed concussion, brain injury, or stroke, please book a 19 channel Normative intake.

About the Condition

Brain injuries vary greatly, from concussions with mild symptoms, to severely debilitating conditions. Brain injuries can have many causes, including stroke, medical conditions, and blows or shaking to the head, and can range in effects to include cognitive, emotional, and motor symptoms.

As brain injuries can occur anywhere in the brain, and are associated with increased risk of seizures, identified brain injuries require a 19 channel Normative assessment and consultation with a neurologist.

Recommended Neurofeedback Treatment

Just as the causes and effects of brain injuries vary, so do the recommended Neurofeedback treatments. In many cases, elevated slow frequency can be identified, either locally in the region of injury, or diffuse, across the whole brain. Often, treatment of many areas of the brain is required, as even an uninjured area can be affected, being recruited to compensate for an injured area.

Additional Recommended Psychological Services

The need for additional psychological services can also vary greatly. Often psychological distress is part of recovery from a brain injury, so supportive counselling can be helpful. Disregulated nervous system responses can also be helped with cranio-sacral therapy, and peripheral biofeedback. Your clinician will develop a treatment plan, specific to your needs.

Recommended Reading

Biofeedback for the Brain

Further reading...

Ayers, M. E. (1981). A report on a study of the utilization of electroencephalography for the treatment of cerebral vascular lesion syndromes. Chapter in L. Taylor, M. E. Ayers, & C. Tom (Eds.), Electromyometric Biofeedback Therapy. Los Angeles: Biofeedback and Advanced Therapy Institute, 244–257.

Ayers, M. E. (1987). Electroencephalic neurofeedback and closed head injury of 250 individuals. Head Injury Frontiers. National Head Injury Foundation, 380–392.

Ayers, M. E. (1991). A controlled study of EEG neurofeedback training and clinical psychotherapy for right hemispheric closed head injury. Paper presented at the National Head Injury Foundation, Los Angeles, 1991.

Ayers, M. E. (1995a). A controlled study of EEG neurofeedback and physical therapy with pediatric stroke, age seven months to age fifteen, occurring prior to birth. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 20(3), 318.

Ayers, M. E. (1995b). EEG neurofeedback to bring individuals out of level 2 coma. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 20(3), 304–305.

Ayers, M. E. (1999). Assessing and treating open head trauma, coma, and stroke using real-time digital EEG neurofeedback. Chapter in J. R. Evans & A. Abarbanel (Eds.), Introduction to Quantitative EEG and Neurofeedback. New York: Academic Press, 203–222.

Ayers, M. E. (2004). Neurofeedback for cerebral palsy. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(2), 9394.

Bachers, A. (2004). Neurofeedback with cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(2), 95–96.

Bearden, T. S., Cassisi, J. E., & Pineda, M. (2003). Neurofeedback training for a patient with thalamic and cortical infarctions. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 28(3), 241–253.

Bounias, M., Laibow, R. E., Bonaly, A., & Stubblebine, A. N. (2002). EEG neurobiofeedback treatment of patients with brain injury: Part 1: Typological classification of clinical syndromes. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(4), 23–44.

Bounias, M., Laibow, R. E., Stubbelbine, A. N., Sandground, H., & Bonaly, A. (2002). EEG neurobiofeedback treatment of patients with brain injury Part 4: Duration of treatments as a function of both the initial load of clinical symptoms and the rate of rehabilitation. Journal of Neurotherapy, 6(1), 23–38.

Byers, A. P. (1995). Neurofeedback therapy for a mild head injury. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(1), 22–37.

Cannon, K. B., Sherlin, L., & Lyle, R. R. (2010). Neurofeedback efficacy in the treatment of a 43-year-old female stroke victim: a case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 14(2), 107–121.

Doppelmayr, M., Nosko, H., Pecherstorfer, T., & Fink, A. (2007). An attempt to increase cognitive performance after stroke with neurofeedback. Biofeedback, 35(4), 126–130.

Duff, J. (2004). The usefulness of quantitative EEG (QEEG) and neurotherapy in the assessment and treatment of post-concussion syndrome. Clinical EEG & Neuroscience, 35(4), 198–209.

Hammond, D. C. (2005). Neurofeedback to improve physical balance, incontinence, and swallowing. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(1), 27–48.

Hammond, D. C. (2007). Can LENS neurofeedback treat anosmia resulting from a head injury? Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(1), 57–62.

Hoffman, D. A., Stockdale, S., & Van Egren, L. (1996a). Symptom changes in the treatment of mild traumatic brain injury using EEG neurofeedback [Abstract]. Clinical Electroencephalography, 27(3), 164.

Hoffman, D. A., Stockdale, S., & Van Egren, L. (1996b). EEG neurofeedback in the treatment of mild traumatic brain injury [Abstract]. Clinical Electroencephalography, 27(2), 6.

Keller, I. (2001). Neurofeedback therapy of attention deficits in patients with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(1-2), 19–32.

Keller, I., Garbacenkaite, R., (2015). Neurofeedback in three patients in the state of unresponsive wakefulness. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 40(4), 349-356. doi: 10.1007/s10484-015-9296-7

Koberda, J. L. (2015). LORETA z-score neurofeedback-effectiveness in rehabilitation of patients suffering from traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurology and Neurobiology, 1 (4).

Koberda J, L. and Stodolska-Koberda U (2014). Z-score LORETA Neurofeedback as a Potential Rehabilitation Modality in Patients with CVA. Journal of Neurology and Stroke 1(5): 00029.

Kubis, N. (2016). Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation to Enhance Post-Stroke Recovery. Frontiers in Neural Circuits, 10.

Laibow, R E., Stubblebine, A. N., Sandground, H.,& Bounias, M. (2002). EEG neurobiofeedback treatment of patients with brain injury: Part 2: Changes in EEG parameters versus rehabilitation. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(4), 45–71

Nelson, D., & Esty, M. (2012). Neurotherapy of traumatic brain injury/posttraumatic stress symptoms in oef/oif veterans. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 24(2), 237-240.

Putman, J. A., (2002). EEG biofeedback on a female stroke patient with depression: A case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(3), 27–38.

Ross, Christina L., and Benjamin S. Harrison. “The Use of Magnetic Field for the Reduction of Inflammation: A Review of the History and Therapeutic Results.” ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES, vol. 19, 2013, p. 8.

Rozelle, G. R., & Budzynski, T. H. (1995). Neurotherapy for stroke rehabilitation: A single case study. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 20(3), 211–228.

Schoenberger, N. E., Shiflett, S. C., Esty, M. L., Ochs, L., & Matheis, R. J. (2001). Flexyx neurotherapy system in the treatment of traumatic brain injury: An initial evaluation. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 16(3), 260–274.

Swatzyna, R.J. (2009). The Elusive Nature of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Biofeedback, 37(3): 92-95.

Thatcher, R. W. (2000). EEG operant conditioning (biofeedback) and traumatic brain injury. Clinical Electroencephalography, 31(1), 38–44.

Thornton, K. (2000). Improvement/rehabilitation of memory functioning with neurotherapy/QEEG biofeedback. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 15(6), 12851296.

Thornton, K. (2002) The improvement/rehabilitation of auditory memory functioning with EEG biofeedback. Neurorehabilitation, 17(1), 69–81.

Thornton, K. E., & Carmody, D. P. (2005). Electroencephalogram biofeedback for reading disability and traumatic brain injury. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 137–162.

Thornton, K. E., & Carmody, D. P. (2008). Efficacy of traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: Interventions of QEEG-guided biofeedback, computers, strategies, and medications. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 33(2), 101–124.

Tinius, T. P., & Tinius, K. A. (2001). Changes after EEG biofeedback and cognitive retraining in adults with mild traumatic brain injury and attention deficit disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(2), 27–44.

Vincenzi, F., Ravani, A., Pasquini, S., Merighi, S., Gessi, S., Setti, S., … Varani, K. (2017). Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Exposure Reduces Hypoxia and Inflammation Damage in Neuron-Like and Microglial Cells. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 232(5), 1200–1208.

Walker, J. E. (2007). A neurologist’s experience with QEEG-guided neurofeedback following brain injury. Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, 353–361.

Wing, K. (2001). Effect of neurofeedback on motor recovery of a patient with brain injury: A case study and its implications for stroke rehabilitation. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 8(3), 45–53.

Yoo, S. S., & Jolesz, F. A. (2002). Functional MRI for neurofeedback: feasibility study on a hand motor task. Neuroreport, 13, 1377–1381.